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The Qualitics.
Volume 1. The Theory Of Quality Of The Stream Techniques

Author Yuriy K. Krasnov
Un-edited version. Please excuse butchered English.
If you are interested in helping with editing this book - please contact author directly at yuriykrasnov@thequalitics.com

To my beloved son Yuriy.
Yuriy K. Krasnov.

 1. What is the Qualitics? (back to the top)

The Qualitics is a new word. Just as "the Physics", "the Mathematics", etc. Because any new approach to Nature requires a new name. The Qualitics is a new approach to the solutions of any measurable problems. Measurable means that you have an operational quantitative measure of things you are talking about. For instance, the love is cool, but has no measure; therefore, the Qualitics is not about the love...

Theory of Quality or Qualitics is not some special type of science, but it is some special common method of cognition, just as the Induction or the Deduction is. The Theory of Quality rather is a type of Logic, than some branch of Science. Indeed, Qualitics does not have a well-defined object of cognition, it can be used in any science and even for the analysis of non-scientific phenomena, as, for example, the chess tournament is. Qualitics does not suggest any specific mathematical apparatus; it uses any of them to reach its goal, etc. Therefore, Qualitics does not have most important features of any special science. However, Qualitics dictates absolutely definite way of logic, requires absolutely certain steps to be done. And as a profit of all of these Qualitics promises to bring up the very significant quantitative measures of quality and to build a base for a real and measurable optimization of the considered processes and phenomena.

 2. What is the goal of Qualitics? (back to the top)

The main goal of Qualitics is to calculate the Quality Index of a given thing or process. Strictly speaking, the definition of the Quality Index, or QI, is the following:

Quality Index = Parameter of functionality / Criterion of functionality

Parameter of functionality is a functional result, which was achieved or is achieved by a given thing or process.  Criterion of functionality is a functional result, which could be achieved by an ideal realization of given thing or process.  Therefore, the parameter of functionality is what we really got, and criterion of functionality is what we might have in principle.

Therefore, the key point in Qualitics is the calculation of the criterion of functionality. The construction of an ideal model of the given thing or process and the calculation of its criterion of functionality - that is what the Qualitics is all about!

 3. What is the Qualitics' logic structure? (back to the top)

Very good question. It could be asked in regard to any scientific method. For instance, you can ask: "What is the mathematical Induction's logic structure?" As we now, the mathematical Induction is a method of proving of the mathematical statements.

Let's assume that you want to prove some mathematical statement. To do that, you can use the method of the mathematical Induction, which logical structure is the following.

If you will do the all steps (how you will find needed proves - it is your problem), required by that graph of the logical structure of the method of the mathematical Induction, you will prove that the statement indeed is true at any n.

Look now on the following picture. It is a graph of the Qualitics' logical structure. It shows you the steps should be done to get the quantitative measure of the quality of a thing or a process you are interested for.

 This is an equivalent graph of the logical structure of Qualitics.

As this graph shows, the formal goal of Qualitics is an obtaining of a quantitative measure of quality - the Quality Index, which opens a quantitative door to the comparison of a concrete realization with the functional perfection accessible in principle. The whole content of Qualitics is concentrated on the calculation of QI.

The first stage of Qualitics always consists of the recognition and determination of the functionality of a considered object.

Because the Nature does not contain any elements of such notions as the purpose, the functionality, the quality, etc., the talk, actually, goes about us, the human beings. We should systemize our own imagination: what the purpose, functionality, quality, etc., we are talking about in the considered case.

For what functional purpose we have created this thing or organized this process? What a result of the natural phenomena we will count as its functionality? The answers on such questions just lead us to the recognition of the functionality of a considered thing or process. In many cases some convention will be needed there, because the different people can insist of the same thing or process upon the different functionality.

However, not any defined functionality gets under jurisdiction of Qualitics, only the metrisizable one. Therefore, together with recognition of any functionality, we have to recognize a possibility to measure its results, and we should define (introduce) absolutely operationally the quantitative measure of this functionality. Only at that conditions we will be able to construct the quantitative theory of quality - the Qualitics.

As far the functionality and the quantitative measure of a given functionality are determined, as soon we should check out whether this functionality is a definitely metrisizable or not. The definitely metrisizable functionality is the one, which excludes any possibility of uncertain answer on the general question: "Was or not the functional goal achieved in the given realization?" As we have already seen, not at any metrisizable functionality we can get a definite answer on this key question because of self functionality, if it was determined as a indefinitely metrisizable one. Therefore, the checking that the introduced functionality is a definitely metrisizable one is an important step of Qualitics.

As far the functionality and the quantitative measure of a given functionality are determined, as soon we are getting the tool to measure the functional result obtained at any concrete actual realization of a given thing or process, i.e., the parameter of functionality.

It is very important to recognize that the reduction of our common imagination about thing or process to their metrisizable functionality can appear only as a result of empirical and logical investigation of a considered object, what actually is a content of any science. The analysis of this content belongs to the Logic of sciences and goes too far beyond the purpose of this book. But we should emphasize that Qualitics begins there and then, where and when the stage of the recognition of the definitely metrisizable functionality is accomplished.

Let us assume that the functionality and the quantitative measure of a given functionality are determined. Then, as the graph of the Qualitics' logical structure shows, it starts the stage of the abstraction to the object's ideal model, or the Idealization of thing or process. It should be emphasized that there is no talk about some fantasy and not about creation of some Utopian theory. We are talking wholly and totally about the absolutely scientific idealizations, the ideal models of wholly material processes or things with wholly defined functionality and with known gauges, i.e. we are talking about idealizations that are the basics in any natural science. Ideality of such models consist of giving up the all of non-attributive elements and features, and keeping up the all of attributive ones, without which the considered things or processes could not realize its functionality. To help to accomplish this very important stage the method of equivalent graphs is recommended. The scientific materialism guaranties that, if the functionality of a given thing or process is expressed in the categories of the material relations and interactions of the material components the thing or process consist of, these relations and interactions can be expressed symbolically in the form of some graph. Graphically expressing the material structure of thing or process, the equivalent graphs allow us clearly see and identify the all non-reducible attributive elements of thing or process and the all attributive relations and interactions between them. Hence, the creation of an equivalent graph is included as a special step of Qualitics. The possibility of creation of an equivalent graph assumes that there exist an appropriate Catalog of non-reducible elements and communications between them. It is natural that such a Catalog will be permanently developed, will be including the more and more graphical images of the new elements and communications.

In the general sense, the creation of the ideal model means, at the first place, imagination and description of the whole structure and the all communications between structural elements of a given thing or process. (The creation of the equivalent graph helps there very much). At the second place, it means collection and solution of the all equations that are describing the causal relations of all of these elements with each other and with an external environment. Only having the full system of equations, describing an ideal model of think or process, we will be able to find out the value of the major notion of Qualitics - the criterion of functionality. Only passing through this stage we will be able to construct a mathematical expression of the major nation of Qualitics - the Quality Index, or QI, of a given thing or process. By that, the formal goal of Qualitics can be count as an accomplished one.

Having such a formula for QI, we will be able absolutely objectively estimate any concrete realization of a given functionality. We will be able to compare the functional quality of different particular realizations; we will be able to compare the realizations of the same functionality achieved on the different way and ideas, and so on. But, in reality we will get much more, than we were expected. Indeed, the existence of a mathematical expression for QI, from the one side, allows us to optimize QI, and to find the conditions, at which it reaches its maximal possible value. And from the other side, it allows us to analyze, what assumptions and approximations, that were be done on the stage Idealization, are differ from the real situation. It will show us the directions we should try to develop and improve the several components of thing or process. The rest part of this book is just devoted to the topics that are proving this most important feature of Qualitics.

Actually, the any creative work of human beings is directed to improve the quality of things and processes around us. It is rising the question: "What is the Qualitics in such a case?" The answer is very pragmatic and operational: any innovation, obtained due to actions made in accordance with graph of the Qualitics' logical structure, belongs to Qualitics; any innovation, obtained due to actions made not in accordance with that graph, does not belongs to Qualitics. Just as not every result in mathematics is obtained due to using of method of Induction; there are many of wonderful results, which were obtained without using of the method of Mathematical Induction.

Qualitics is a specific method of logical analysis of things and processes, a specific way of thinking. Qualitics provides a way, following of which we become able to clearly see the possibilities of improvement of quality of things and processes. It becomes possible because of separation of attributive elements and features and expression of the quantitative measure of the functional quality through attributive characteristics of the all involved participants. Qualitics leads to the result that can be mathematically analyzed. In other words, Qualitics is a logical way that saves our intellectual potation.

 4. Who was the founder of Qualitics? (back to the top)

The founder of Qualitics was Sadi Carnot. The legendary ghost of Perpetual Mobile, which did play a very significant role in the development of sciences, was buried forever in the famous book of Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot "Reflection on the Motive Power of Fire", 1824. Namely Carnot at the first time recognized that the continuous process (for example, a periodic one) of conversion of the all-present energy into a work is impossible. Carnot had expressed this idea in the statement that any real heat engine beside a heater should contain some refrigerator, which by necessity will accumulate some heat becoming unavailable to conversion into a work. In other words, any real heat engine must contain some parts that are leading to the degradation in the quality of energy conversion process.

Studying the heat machine, Carnot conducted the all steps of Qualitics' logical structure, he constructed the ideal model of the heat machine and had calculated its criterion of functionality. It allowed him to calculate the first known Quality Index - the efficiency of energy conversion in an ideal heat machine (a device, which functionality is to transform the heat energy provided by a heater to the useful work of an external body):

eideal = 1 - Tcooler / Theater

(As it is shown in book, for the ideal heat machine its efficiency coincides with its Quality Index). So, we should count Sadi Carnot as a founder of Qualitics.

 5. What is the stream technique? (back to the top)

The stream technique contains any devise or engine, which is using a stream of any continuous medium as a working body.

The heat engines (machines) that were and are used in practice have one common feature: they never were working with the same portion of a working medium; at each new mechanical cycle they were using a new portion of the same medium. Therefore, no one really build heat engine ever had used a closed thermodynamic cycle. So that, any heat machine ever been build, actually was a stream heat machine, i.e., was using some reservoirs (feeding and receiving) of a working medium, and had used the continuously (cyclic) new portions of a working medium. Indeed, starting from the Savery's steam pump (1698), the all heat engines (Newcomen's, Watts', Stirling's, Rankine's, Otto's, Diesel's, the all contemporary auto-engines and all other) have using the feeding reservoir of a working medium (boilers as a stream generators, external air, and so on) as well as the receiving reservoirs of the worked off portions of a working medium (waste steam, exhaust gases, and so on).

Therefore, all of them have been using some cyclic flux of a working medium.

All of them are working due to and as the (opened, but cyclic) stream processes. All of them are subjects of the stream technique. Commonly speaking, the graph of arbitrary stream processes has the following form:

where a. represents the straight stream process, and b. - the reverse stream process.

The all turbines, compressors, pumps, jets, even pulverizers, are subjects of the stream technique. All of them are considered in offered book. 

 6. How Qualitics helps to improve and develop the stream technique?
(back to the top)

As we know, the Carnot's research had founded the constructive way to the manufacturing of the different heat engines. It gave us a certain quantitative measure of the perfection of the processes of energy conversion, have led to the second law of thermodynamics, and have been crowned by the discovery of the Entropy.

Meanwhile, the interest to the stream engines, a prime object of Carnot's research, have been relaxed, although there have been appeared many new methods of energy conversion, the new energy sources, and … the new apologists of Perpetual Mobile. But, the arsenal of our possibilities of the quantitative investigation of the energy conversion processes still is remaining on the level of the 19-century. The progress and the recognition of the limits of natural products pressingly require to the more detailed and more profound methods of description of the energy transformation processes. Due to globalization of the recognition of fact that the all our resources indeed have a limit, there comes to point an urgent necessity of a more detailed description of the basic notion "an efficiency", and the measure of compliance with the functionality, the measure of the quality.

QI allows us, immediately and by very simple way, find the answer one the question: "Which one of two realizations of the Carnot's machine is more perfect as an engineered construction?" The answer is" That one, which has a higher Quality Index QI. The two realizations of the same functionality may have different Quality Indexes at the same efficiencies, and otherwise, the two different realizations can have the same efficiencies at the very different perfection, i.e. qualities.

As one will see, Qualitics promises to be a very simple way to compare the quality of the same production made by the different manufacturers. And this approach seams to be absolutely objective, as any really scientific one. However, one should remember that in Vol.1 of that book we do not consider any economical condition defining the competitive features of the considered thinks or processes as subjects of trade and use, because this book is not about how to sale the staff or to maintain it….

For example, in offered book one will find the prove, that QI of any turbine is equal to the following:

QIturbine = (33/2 / 2)(G/Gmax) [1 - (G/Gmax)2]

where G is an actually realized outlay through a challenged turbine, and Gmax is the maximal outlay available in the same conditions through a same channel without turbine, in principle.

 In book you will find some anonymous comparison of quality of several existing popular devices with their natural limit. The representative graph has a form:

 As one can see, there is a lot of room to improve perfection of our contemporary technique...

 7. Why Qualitics leads to the discovery of new processes? (back to the top)

 Reasonable question. The answer is laying in the logical structure of Qualitics. It requires such steps to be done that you have to literally "penetrate" into the nature of things and relations causing the processes you are investigating. For instance, after the representative graph of quality of several existing popular devices, given above, was obtained, there immediately appeared absolutely evident question: "Why we can not provide the optimal outlay G = Gmax/ 31/2 in our stream machines and apparatus?" As it is analyzed in book, the answer is clear and simple one: "Because of uncontrollable turbulence incoming with feeding flow and developing into our devices" Therefore, there is only one way to increase the quality of stream technique - the laminarization of flow of the used working bodies. It should become the main goal of any creation, design and construction of the stream technique.

This goal can be achieved in two directions: using the special devices - the laminarizators, or using the laminar solutions of the hydrodynamic equations as a core flow inside designed apparatus.

Both directions are discussed in the books. As the best example of the last of them, the tornado-technique is proposed.

Can you imagine a real tornado inside turbine? Not wild uncontrollable whirl, called "Tornado" by manufacturer to impress a customer, but really natural tornado described by the exact solution of the Navier-Stokes' equation? If you can't - buy the book. Buy only to find out what the real tornado is, why, where and how it appears, moves and dies, and how our Airforce can kill that monster each times it appears on our land. It is not a fantasy - it is described and explained in "The Qualitics" on the base of very high quality mathematical solutions...

Even if you will not buy "The Qualitics", please, take my advice: whatever you will create, do it in accordance with graph of the Qualitics' logical structure - you will dramatically increase your chances to achieve really high quality results!

With best regards,

Yuriy K. Krasnov,
July 14, 2001
Cleveland, Ohio, USA

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