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Author Yuriy K. Krasnov

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To my beloved son Yuriy.

Yuriy K. Krasnov.

- What is the Qualitics?
- What is the goal of Qualitics?
- What is the Qualitics' logic structure?
- Who was the founder of Qualitics?
- What is the stream technique?
- How Qualitics helps to improve and develop the stream technique?
- Why Qualitics leads to the discovery of new
processes?

** 1. What is the
Qualitics? **

*The Qualitics*
is a new word. Just as *"the Physics", "the Mathematics"*, etc.
Because any new approach to Nature requires a new name. *The
Qualitics* is a new approach to the solutions of any *
measurable* problems. Measurable means that you have an
operational quantitative measure of things you are talking about.
For instance, the love is *cool*, but has no *measure*;
therefore, the *Qualitics* is not about the love...

*Theory of Quality*
or *Qualitics* is not some special type of science, but it is
some special common method of cognition, just as the *Induction
*or the *Deduction* is. *The Theory of Quality* rather
is *a type* *of Logic*, than some branch of Science.
Indeed, *Qualitics* does not have a well-defined object of
cognition, it can be used in any science and even for the analysis
of non-scientific phenomena, as, for example, the chess tournament
is. *Qualitics* does not suggest any specific mathematical
apparatus; it uses any of them to reach its goal, etc. Therefore, *
Qualitics *does not have most important features of any special
science. However, *Qualitics* dictates absolutely definite way
of logic, requires absolutely certain steps to be done. And as a
profit of all of these *Qualitics *promises to bring up the
very significant quantitative measures of quality and to build a
base for a real and measurable optimization of the considered
processes and phenomena.

** 2. What
is the goal of Qualitics? **

The main goal of *Qualitics*
is to calculate *the Quality Index* of a given thing or
process. Strictly speaking, the definition of *the Quality Index*,
or QI, is the following:

*Quality Index =
Parameter of functionality / Criterion of functionality*

*Parameter of functionality*
is a functional result, which was achieved or is achieved by a given
thing or process. *Criterion of functionality is* a functional
result, which could be achieved by an ideal realization of given
thing or process. Therefore, *the parameter of functionality*
is what we really got, and *criterion of functionality* is what
we might have in principle.

Therefore, the key point in *
Qualitics* is the calculation of *the criterion of
functionality*. The construction of an ideal model of the given
thing or process and the calculation of its *criterion of
functionality* - that is what the *Qualitics* is all about!

**3. What is the
Qualitics' logic structure? **

Very good question. It could be
asked in regard to any scientific method. For instance, you can ask:
"What is the mathematical Induction's logic structure?" As we now,
*the mathematical Induction* is a method of proving of the
mathematical statements.

Let's assume that you want to prove some mathematical statement. To do that, you can use the method of the mathematical Induction, which logical structure is the following.

If you will do the all steps (how you will find needed proves - it is your problem), required by that graph of the logical structure of the method of the mathematical Induction, you will prove that the statement indeed is true at any n.

Look now on the following picture.
It is a graph of the *Qualitics*'
logical structure. It shows you the steps should be done to get the
quantitative measure of the quality of a thing or a process you are
interested for.

This is an equivalent graph of
the logical structure of *Qualitics*.

As this graph shows, the formal
goal of *Qualitics* is an
obtaining of a quantitative measure of quality - *
the Quality Index*, which opens a
quantitative door to the comparison of a concrete realization with
the functional perfection accessible in principle. The whole content
of *Qualitics* is concentrated on
the calculation of QI.

The first stage of *
Qualitics *always consists of the
recognition and determination of the functionality of a considered
object.

Because the Nature does not contain
any elements of such notions as *the purpose*, *the
functionality, the quality*, etc., the talk, actually, goes about
us, the human beings. We should systemize our own imagination: what
the purpose, functionality, quality, etc., we are talking about in
the considered case.

For what functional purpose we have created this thing or organized this process? What a result of the natural phenomena we will count as its functionality? The answers on such questions just lead us to the recognition of the functionality of a considered thing or process. In many cases some convention will be needed there, because the different people can insist of the same thing or process upon the different functionality.

However, not any defined
functionality gets under jurisdiction of *
Qualitics*, only the metrisizable one. Therefore, together
with recognition of any functionality, we have to recognize a
possibility to measure its results, and we should define (introduce)
absolutely operationally the quantitative measure of this
functionality. Only at that conditions we will be able to construct
the quantitative theory of quality - the *
Qualitics*.

As far the functionality and the
quantitative measure of a given functionality are determined, as
soon we should check out whether this functionality is a definitely
metrisizable or not. The definitely metrisizable functionality is
the one, which excludes any possibility of uncertain answer on the
general question: "Was or not the functional goal achieved in the
given realization?" As we have already seen, not at any metrisizable
functionality we can get a definite answer on this key question
because of self functionality, if it was determined as *a
indefinitely metrisizable one*. Therefore, the checking that the
introduced functionality is a definitely metrisizable one is an
important step of *Qualitics*.

As far the functionality and the quantitative measure of a given functionality are determined, as soon we are getting the tool to measure the functional result obtained at any concrete actual realization of a given thing or process, i.e., the parameter of functionality.

It is very important to recognize
that the reduction of our common imagination about thing or process
to their metrisizable functionality can appear only as a result of
empirical and logical investigation of a considered object, what
actually is a content of any science. The analysis of this content
belongs to the Logic of sciences and goes too far beyond the purpose
of this book. But we should emphasize that *
Qualitics *begins there and then, where and when the stage
of the recognition of the definitely metrisizable functionality is
accomplished.

Let us assume that the
functionality and the quantitative measure of a given functionality
are determined. Then, as the graph of the *
Qualitics' *logical structure shows, it starts the stage
of the abstraction to the object's ideal model, or *the
Idealization* of thing or process. It should be emphasized that
there is no talk about some fantasy and not about creation of some
Utopian theory. We are talking wholly and totally about the
absolutely scientific idealizations, the ideal models of wholly
material processes or things with wholly defined functionality and
with known gauges, i.e. we are talking about idealizations that are
the basics in any natural science. Ideality of such models consist
of giving up the all of non-attributive elements and features, and
keeping up the all of attributive ones, without which the considered
things or processes could not realize its functionality. To help to
accomplish this very important stage the method of equivalent graphs
is recommended. The scientific materialism guaranties that, if the
functionality of a given thing or process is expressed in the
categories of the material relations and interactions of the
material components the thing or process consist of, these relations
and interactions can be expressed symbolically in the form of some
graph. Graphically expressing the material structure of thing or
process, the equivalent graphs allow us clearly see and identify the
all non-reducible attributive elements of thing or process and the
all attributive relations and interactions between them. Hence, the
creation of an equivalent graph is included as a special step of *
Qualitics*. The possibility of
creation of an equivalent graph assumes that there exist an
appropriate Catalog of non-reducible elements and communications
between them. It is natural that such a Catalog will be permanently
developed, will be including the more and more graphical images of
the new elements and communications.

In the general sense, the creation
of the ideal model means, at the first place, imagination and
description of the whole structure and the all communications
between structural elements of a given thing or process. (The
creation of the equivalent graph helps there very much). At the
second place, it means collection and solution of the all equations
that are describing the causal relations of all of these elements
with each other and with an external environment. Only having the
full system of equations, describing an ideal model of think or
process, we will be able to find out the value of the major notion
of *Qualitics* - the criterion of
functionality. Only passing through this stage we will be able to
construct a mathematical expression of the major nation of *
Qualitics* - *
the Quality Index*, or QI, of a
given thing or process. By that, the formal goal of *
Qualitics* can be count as an
accomplished one.

Having such a formula for QI, we
will be able absolutely objectively estimate any concrete
realization of a given functionality. We will be able to compare the
functional quality of different particular realizations; we will be
able to compare the realizations of the same functionality achieved
on the different way and ideas, and so on. But, in reality we will
get much more, than we were expected. Indeed, the existence of a
mathematical expression for QI, from the one side, allows us to
optimize QI, and to find the conditions, at which it reaches its
maximal possible value. And from the other side, it allows us to
analyze, what assumptions and approximations, that were be done on
the stage Idealization, are differ from the real situation. It will
show us the directions we should try to develop and improve the
several components of thing or process. The rest part of this book
is just devoted to the topics that are proving this most important
feature of *Qualitics*.

Actually, the any creative work of
human beings is directed to improve the quality of things and
processes around us. It is rising the question: "What is the *
Qualitics* in such a case?" The
answer is very pragmatic and operational: any innovation, obtained
due to actions made in accordance with graph of the
Qualitics' logical structure, belongs
to *Qualitics*; any innovation,
obtained due to actions made not in accordance with that graph, does
not belongs to *Qualitics*. Just
as not every result in mathematics is obtained due to using of
method of Induction; there are many of wonderful results, which were
obtained without using of the method of Mathematical Induction.

*Qualitics*
is a specific method of logical analysis of things and processes, a
specific *way of* *thinking*. *
Qualitics* provides a way, following of which we become
able to clearly see the possibilities of improvement of quality of
things and processes. It becomes possible because of separation of
attributive elements and features and expression of the quantitative
measure of the functional quality through attributive
characteristics of the all involved participants. *
Qualitics* leads to the result that
can be mathematically analyzed. In other words, *
Qualitics* is a logical way that
saves our intellectual potation.

**4. Who was the
founder of Qualitics? **

The founder of *
Qualitics* was *
Sadi Carnot*. The legendary ghost of
*Perpetual Mobile*, which did play a very significant
role in the development of sciences, was buried forever in the
famous book of Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot *
"Reflection on the Motive Power of Fire"*, 1824. Namely
Carnot at the first time recognized that the continuous process (for
example, a periodic one) of conversion of the all-present energy
into a work is impossible. Carnot had expressed this idea in the
statement that *any real heat engine beside a heater should
contain some refrigerator*, which *by necessity* will
accumulate some heat becoming unavailable to conversion into a work.
In other words, any real heat engine must contain some parts that
are leading to the degradation in the quality of energy conversion
process.

Studying the heat machine, Carnot
conducted the all steps of Qualitics' logical structure, he
constructed *the ideal model* of
the heat machine and had calculated its *
criterion of functionality*. It allowed him to calculate
the first known *Quality Index*
- the efficiency of energy
conversion in an ideal *heat machine*
(a device, which functionality is to transform the heat
energy provided by a heater to the useful work of an external body):

e_{ideal}
= 1 - T_{cooler} / T_{heater}

(As it is shown in book, for the
ideal heat machine its *efficiency*
coincides with its *Quality Index*).
So, we should count Sadi Carnot as a founder of *
Qualitics*.

**5. What is
the stream technique? **

*The stream
technique* contains any devise or engine,
which is using *a stream of any continuous medium* as *a
working body*.

The heat engines (machines) that
were and are used in practice have one common feature: they never
were working with *the same portion* of a working medium; at
each new *mechanical* cycle they were using *a new portion*
of the same medium. Therefore, *no one really build heat engine
ever had used a closed thermodynamic cycle*.
So that, any heat machine ever been build, actually was a *
stream* *
heat machine*, i.e., was using some reservoirs (feeding
and receiving) of a working medium, and had used the continuously
(cyclic) new portions of a working medium. Indeed, starting from the
Savery's steam pump (1698), the all heat engines (Newcomen's,
Watts', Stirling's, Rankine's, Otto's, Diesel's, the all
contemporary auto-engines and all other) have using the feeding
reservoir of a working medium (boilers as a stream generators,
external air, and so on) as well as the receiving reservoirs of the
worked off portions of a working medium (waste steam, exhaust gases,
and so on).

Therefore, all of them have been
using some* cyclic flux* of a
working medium.

All of them are working due to and
as *the (opened, but cyclic) stream
processes*. All of them are subjects of the *
stream technique*. Commonly
speaking, the graph of arbitrary stream processes has the following
form:

where a. represents *
the straight stream process*, and b.
- *the reverse stream process*.

The all *
turbines, compressors, pumps, jets*, even *
pulverizers*, are subjects of *
the stream technique*. All of them
are considered in offered book.

**6. How
Qualitics helps to improve and
develop the stream technique?
**

As we know, the Carnot's research had founded the constructive way to the manufacturing of the different heat engines. It gave us a certain quantitative measure of the perfection of the processes of energy conversion, have led to the second law of thermodynamics, and have been crowned by the discovery of the Entropy.

Meanwhile, the interest to the
stream engines, a prime object of Carnot's research, have been
relaxed, although there have been appeared many new methods of
energy conversion, the new energy sources, and … the new apologists
of *Perpetual Mobile*. But, the arsenal of our possibilities of
the quantitative investigation of the energy conversion processes
still is remaining on the level of the 19-century. The progress and
the recognition of the limits of natural products pressingly require
to the more detailed and more profound methods of description of the
energy transformation processes. Due to globalization of the
recognition of fact that the all our resources indeed have a limit,
there comes to point an urgent necessity of a more detailed
description of the basic notion "an efficiency", and the measure of
compliance with the functionality, the measure of the quality.

QI allows us, immediately and by
very simple way, find the answer one the question: "Which one of two
realizations of the Carnot's machine is more perfect as an
engineered construction?" The answer is" That one, which has a
higher *Quality Index* QI. The two
realizations of the same functionality may have different *
Quality Indexes* at the same
efficiencies, and otherwise, the two different realizations can have
the same efficiencies at the very different perfection, i.e.
qualities.

As one will see, *
Qualitics* promises to be a very
simple way to compare the quality of the same production made by the
different manufacturers. And this approach seams to be absolutely
objective, as any really scientific one. However, one should
remember that in Vol.1 of that book we do not consider any
economical condition defining the competitive features of the
considered thinks or processes as subjects of trade and use, because
this book is not about how to sale the staff or to maintain it….

For example, in offered book one will find the prove, that QI of any turbine is equal to the following:

QI_{turbine}
= (3^{3/2} / 2)(G/G_{max}) [1 - (G/G_{max})^{2}]

where G is an actually realized
outlay through a challenged turbine, and G_{max} is the
maximal outlay available in the same conditions through a same
channel without turbine, in principle.

In book you will find some anonymous comparison of quality of several existing popular devices with their natural limit. The representative graph has a form:

As one can see, there is a lot of room to improve perfection of our contemporary technique...

**7. Why
Qualitics leads to the discovery of
new processes? **

Reasonable question. The answer is
laying in the logical structure of *
Qualitics*. It requires such steps to be done that you
have to literally "penetrate" into the nature of things and
relations causing the processes you are investigating. For instance,
after the representative graph of quality of several existing
popular devices, given above, was obtained, there immediately
appeared absolutely evident question: "Why we can not provide the
optimal outlay G = G_{max}/ 3^{1/2} in our stream
machines and apparatus?" As it is analyzed in book, the answer is
clear and simple one: "Because of uncontrollable turbulence incoming
with feeding flow and developing into our devices" Therefore, there
is only one way to increase the quality of stream technique - *
the laminarization* of flow of the
used working bodies. It should become *the main goal* of any
creation, design and construction of the stream technique.

This goal can be achieved in two
directions: using the special devices - *the
laminarizators*, or using *the
laminar solutions of the hydrodynamic equations* as a core
flow inside designed apparatus.

Both directions are discussed in
the books. As the best example of the last of them, *
the tornado-technique* is proposed.

Can you imagine a real tornado
inside turbine? Not wild uncontrollable whirl, called "Tornado" by
manufacturer to impress a customer, but really natural tornado
described by the exact solution of the Navier-Stokes' equation? If
you can't - buy the book. Buy only to find out what the real tornado
is, why, where and how it appears, moves and dies, and how our
Airforce can kill that monster each times it appears on our land. It
is not a fantasy - it is described and explained in *
"The Qualitics" *on the base of very
high quality mathematical solutions...

Even if you will not buy *
"The Qualitics"*, please, take my
advice: whatever you will create, do it in accordance with graph of
the *Qualitics'* logical structure
- you will dramatically increase your chances to achieve really high
quality results!

With best regards,

*Yuriy K. Krasnov,
July 14, 2001
Cleveland, Ohio, USA*

* * *

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